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“…Abram brought all these to him, cut them in two and arranged the halves opposite each other… You, however, will go to your ancestors in peace and be buried at a good old age…. When the sun had set and darkness had fallen, a smoking firepot with a blazing torch appeared and passed between the pieces. On that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram…” (Genesis 15 v10-18)

In a covenant, taking a pledge in Biblical times, both parties go between sacrificial pieces. They, by doing that, symbolically indicate that it is impossible for one of the parties to break the Covenant. In Genesis 15, however, there is not an alliance between equal parties. This is an unilateral covenant without conditions to Abram's address. Only God gives a promise without asking Abram for something in return. In verse 17 it is exclusively the glory of Yahweh, which is expressed in a smoking furnace with a fiery torch, which goes between the pieces. 

The mountain sanctuary Göbekli Tepe, close to Abrahams (2038-1863BC) birthplace Ur (Urfa) (4000-535BC), is estimated between 5000 to 11,500 years old. It is the oldest known temple complex in the world and is lying in the region and the period where it is believed that the agricultural revolution began.

The Hebrew word for reconciliation, reconnecting: kofér, has the meaning of 'substitution by a sacrifice' (the blood of an animal or money). And this substitution occurs, is needed, when the legal balance is disrupted. The breached law must be complied with. It is God who must first be reconciled. He is object of reconciliation. But at the same time he is also the subject of reconciliation, because in his infinite goodness he has conceived the the sacrificial offer himself. That offer finds its meaning in the sacrifice-service he ordered. ' Without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.' (Heb. 9:22).